The Art of Physick
Section A. Of the 7 Naturals
D. What is a Temperament?
C. A Temperament is a proportion of the Four chief Elementary Qualities proper for the true exercise of the Natural Functions. Avicen[na] defines a Temperament to be a Quality arising from the Elements proportionally mixed. Galen calls it the beginning of Natural Functions and Faculties. Averrhoes, the Form of a mixed Body. But this last Definition does not please me, because the form of a mixed body is a substance, but Temperament is an Accident in the order of Qualities.
D. Think you a Mixture of the first Qualities may be made without a Mixture of the Elements?
C. By no means. For though in this, Temperament differs from Mixture, that the latter is made proper to the Elements, the former to the Qualities, yet are they so conjoined, that neither Mixture can be made without the aid of Efficient Qualities, nor Temperament without the substance of all the Elements. So that Temperament is a kind of Harmony of the four principle Qualities, proceeding from the Mixture of all the Elements.
D. How many differences of Temperaments in general?
C. Nine. One Temperate, eight without Temperament; of which Four are simple; Hot, Cold, Moist, Dry, and as many compounded; as Hot and Moist, Hot and Dry, Cold and Moist, and Cold and Dry.
D. What is that which is said to be Temperate?
C. That which the Greeks call well-tempered, which is as it were the Rule and Measure of all Temperaments.
D. Of how many kinds is it?
C. Twofold. The one tempered absolutely and to weight; the other to Justice in several Genus’s.
D. What call ye Temperament absolute and to weight?
C. That in which there is an even and equal proportion of Elements mixed together; no more of hot then moist, no more of cold then dry.
This Galen believes to be rather imaginary, then real; for if at any time it happen to be, yet that it lasts but a very short time.
D. What call ye Tempered to Justice in several kinds?
C. That which does not contain an exact evenness of Contraries, but such a decent Mediocrity as its Nature requires, and best agrees with the Genus of Species. So that the equality of the Mixture is not to be measured by Arithmetical, but Geographical Proportion. For Justice gives to every thing its due, according to Dignity.
D. What are the simple Temperaments without Temper?
C. Such Temperatures wherein one of the four Qualities exceeds, as either Heat, Cold, Moisture, or Drought [Dryness].
D. Which are the compounds?
C. In which there is an excess of two Qualities: as a Temperature hot and moist, in which the Heat exceeds the Cold, and Moisture Dryness. Cold and Dry, which has more of Cold then Heat, and more of Dry then Moist.
D. Thou hast in vain distinguished the Temperaments into Simple and Compound; when there is no simple Temperaments, but all are compounded.
C. That I deny.
D. I prove it thus: A simple Temperament is that wherein one only Element prevails; as Hot, in whose Temperament Fire prevails; Cold, in which Fire overcomes.
But every Element has two Qualities for Fire is Hot and Dry, Water Cold and Moist.
Therefore there is no simple Temperament.
C. That is called a Simple Temperament, wherein one Quality prevails, not one Element.
D. Against thy answer I thus argue:
Seeing that Quality is an Accident, it cannot subsist by itself without a Subject. And therefore if any Quality of an Element prove superior, of necessity the Element to which it belongs must prevail.
C. Although every Element has two Qualities, there is but one which is predominant, from which the Temperament derives its name. But therefore is it called a Temperament hot or cold, because the Heat prevails over the contrary Cold, or the Cold over the contrary Heat, with an equality of moist and dry. And it is called a moist and dry Temper, because the moist is more powerful then the dry, or the dry then the Moist, with an Equality of hot and cold.
The Art Of Physick
OF THE 7 NATURALS
Introduction to the 7 Naturals
OF THE 6 NOT-NATURALS
(Preservation of Health)
Introduction to the 6 Not-Naturals
1. Ambient Air
2. Food and Drink
3. Sleep and Waking
4a. Exercise &
6. Emotions (Passions of the Mind)
OF THE 3 PRETER-NATURALS
3a. Symptoms &