The Art of Physick
Section A. Of the 7 Naturals
4. Of the Humors
D. Having thus reckoned up the parts containing, now for the parts contained. Which then are the parts contained?
C. The fluid parts, which are supported by the help of others, such as are the Humors and Spirits.
D. How many Humors are contained in the Body?
C. Besides the Primogeneous Humor, or that which comes naturally of itself, there are two other adventitious, that is to say, the Alimentary and Excrementitious.
D. What do you mean by the Primogenious Humor?
C. A certain Oily substance, bred in the more solid parts of the Body, from their first original, being the basis and Seat of Spirit and Innate Heat, and is therefore called by the name of Radical Moisture.
D. Which do you call Alimentary Humors?
C. The Juices of the solid parts appointed for nourishment, which derive their original from a commixture of the Four Elements.
D. Which the Excrementitious?
C. The superfluous moisture in the body, useless to Nature.
D. How are the Alimentary Humors distinguished?
C. Into Primary and Secondary.
D. Which are accounted the Primary?
C. Those which are distributed by the Chylus in the Liver, by the Power of its Natural Inbred Heat, through the Veins to the several parts of the Body for their Nourishment.
D. How many Primary Humors are there?
C. Four. Blood, Choler, Melancholy, and Phlegm. Which are all mixed together in the Veins. This mixture of the four Humors is called the Sanguinary mass by reason that the Blood has the greatest share in it.
D. What is to be understood by the word Blood?
C. The Word Blood is sometimes taken in a diffusive sense for the whole Mass of the Blood; but properly it signifies the more pure and enlivening part of it.
D. What is the Temperature of the Blood?
C. The Blood, generally taken for the whole Mass of Blood, is well Tempered, in regard the temperature arises from an equal mixture of the future contrary Humors; together with a just proportion and decant Harmony of the same: but being considered in it self, as pure and limpid, it is hot and moist, and something of the nature of Air: Nor is it differentiated from the rest of the Humors by reason of the peculiar temper only, but also by its Consistency, Color, Taste and Use.
D. What is the Consistency of the Blood, what its Color, Taste and Use?
C. The Blood is of a consistency so thin, that while it is kept within the bounds of Nature, it appears neither thicker nor thinner, of a red color, and sweet taste. It nourishes chiefly the musculous parts, while it has the predominancy; and makes men fleshy, lively, handsome, good dispositioned and cheerful.
D. In what Ages is the Blood most prevalent?
C. In Children, Youth and Young men; this Galen affirms, That Boys, Young Men, and Striplings between both, enjoy most of the sanguine Humor, as in whom the first Principles of Life are yet most vigorous.
D. When does it most abound in the Body?
C. The Blood is most plentiful in the Spring, because then the Frosts are dissolved, and the Waters are let loose, according to the Opinion of Hippocrates.
D. What is Choler?
C. Alimentary Choler is the most thin part of the Sanguinary Mass, partaking of the Nature of Fire, in Temperament Hot and Dry, of a pale or yellow Color, bitter in Taste; and causes men to be lean, tough, active, rash and hasty, nourishing those parts which are most akin to its Nature, wherein it differs from the excrementitious.
D. What is the excremenitious Choler?
C. That which is sent to the Bladder or Bag of the Gall, to hasten the expulsion of the Excrements, and to cleanse the Guts of any slimy matter sticking to them.
D. In what sort of persons is Choler most predominant?
C. Yellow Choler abounds most in those who are in the Prime of their Age, as Galen avers.
D. When does it most abound?
C. Choler abounds most in the Summer, as Hippocrates declares: as also in a dry season of the Air, for that drought renders the hands more Choleric in quality, as Galen delivers his judgement.
D. What is Melancholy?
C. Alimentary Melancholy is the thicker part of the Sanguinary Mass, of the nature of the Earth, in temper cold and dry, of a black color, sour in taste, and renders men sad, thoughtful, morose, severe and constant; it nourishes the most solid and dry parts of the Body, as the Bones; where it differs from the excrementitious.
D. Which is the Excrementitious Melancholy?
C. That which is carried to the Milt; where it is separated from the more useful Juice that affords it nourishment, and so poured out of the Stomach, to excite the Appetite, and to strengthen the Faculty which retains the meat during Concoction.
D. What sort of people are most subject to Melancholy?
C. Black Melancholy is most exuberant in the declining Age of Men, by the Authority of Galen.
D. When does it most abound in the Body?
C. Black Melancholy abounds most in the Autumnal Season, as Hippocrates relates.
D. What is Phlegm?
C. Alimentary Phlegm is the more liquid part of the Sanguinary Mass, of the nature of Water, in temper cold and moist, of a white color, and sweet Taste, or rather without any savor. It makes men slothful, sleepy, dull, fat, white, and effeminate; it nourishes the Brain, and other cold and moist parts of the Body; wherein it chiefly differs from the Excrementitious.
D. What is the Excrementitious Phlegm?
C. The Serous or Whey-like superfluity which the Kidneys separate from the Blood, and conveigh to the Bladder through the Ureters, where it is called Urine.
D. At what age is Phlegm most abundant?
C. Phlegm abounds most in old Age, by reason of the decay of the Natural Heat.
D. When does it most abound in the Body?
C. The Winter fills the Body with Phlegm, by reason of the great plenty of Rain, and the length of Nights, as Hippocrates declares. A moist Constitution of the Air works also the same Effect; for the moisture of the ambient Air increases Phlegmatic Humors, and begets a great many watery superfluities.
D. Which are accounted the Secondary Humors?
C. Such as derive their Original from the former in any part of the Body; where they are more exactly prepared by the last concoction: from whence two manifest Excrements proceed, Sweat and Ordure; besides what goes forth by insensible Transpiration.
D. How many are the secondary Humors?
C. They are reckoned to be in number four; according to the diversity of those Alterations which they undergo, while they are prepared for the nourishment of every part.
The first is that which is contained in the small Veins, thence ready to empty it self into the vacant spaces.
The second, that which being diffused into the substances of the Part, penetrates it like a kind of Dew.
The third, that which gathers about the Hair, sticks to it.
And the last is a thickened Liquor that sticks in such a manner to the Fibers, that it seems to be changed into the substance of a Similar Part. And thus the Humors through the variety of their Alteration, at length change into the Nature of the Body.
D. Think’st thou the Humors constituting the Nature of the Body to be perpetually Natural?
C. Not so: for as when the Humors observe their Mixture and Temper, they are Natural; so when they fall from their equal Constitution, they become devious, and wanderers from Nature. Whence it happens the Bodies are sometimes sound, sometimes sick; according to that of Hippocrates, containing in it self Blood and Phlegm, Black and Yellow Choler, by which the Nature of the Body is constituted, and by means of which it is either sick or well; for by the benefit of these it is in health when they answer one to another in reference to Temperament, in Quantity, and Quality; and in reference to Mixture, when they are mixed, and not separated one from the other.
But the Body is sick through the ill operation of these; when in reference to Temperament, one abounds, the other is defective in Quality; or when in Quality, when the faculty of the one is more intense, of the other more remiss. Or else in reference to Mixture, when one Humor separates from the rest of the Mass; for when one Humor is separated from the rest of the Mass, there must of necessity be some Distemper in that part, from whence the Humor is departed contrary to Nature; or in that part where it overflows contrary to Nature; which Humor departing from the rest, if it be expelled without the Body, begets a simple Disease; but if it remain within the Body, it will cause a double Distemper in that part which it has left, through Evacuation, and in the Part where it abounds, by Repletion.
D. How does the Blood deviate from the Rule of Nature?
C. When it grows corrupt, that is, when the thinner portion of it turns to yellow, the thicker parts to black Choler; by which it becomes fuller of Choler and Melancholy: Or if it be vitiated by other Humors which flow into the Veins from the Bag of the Gall, or any other Parts.
D. How does Choler deviate from Nature?
C. When either within or without the Veins it changes its Nature.
D. How many sorts of Choler are bred in the Veins contrary to Nature?
C. Three sorts; the pale, the yolk-colored, and the Black.
D. How does Choler become Pale?
C. By the mixture of the Serous Humor.
D. How of the color of the Yolk of an Egg?
C. It is compounded of yellow and pal, while the Acrimony of the Unnatural Heat is boiled up as it were to a Consistency, so that of a thin, it becomes a thick substance, and the color of it is likewise heightened, resembling the color of the raw yolk of an Egg.
D. How does the black Choler depart from its natural course?
C. Black Choler is made of the Vitelline by the extremity of Heat and Burning.
D. How many sorts of Choler are bred out of the Veins contrary to Nature?
C. Three sorts; the Leek-colored, the Rust-colored, and the Woad-colored.
D. What is the Matter which compounds them?
C. They are generated chiefly in the Stomach, of Meats that are if vicious and evil juice; and the Vitelline Choler poured forth into the Stomach, is frequently changed into one or other of these, contracting a change of color from the coldness of the Place.
D. What causes the Effects of Melancholy against Nature?
C. When the Melancholic Humor, by extremity of Heat is as it were burnt to ashes; so that it becomes sharp and biting, differing from the Melancholy Juice, as burnt Lees from not burnt. This sort of Melancholy is called Black Choler, and Black-choleric Humor.
D. What cause in Phlegm its contra-natural Effects?
C. When it is corrupted either in the Veins, or without the Veins.
D. How many sorts of Phlegm are bred in the Veins against Nature?
C. Two sorts; Acid and Salt.
D. What is the Acid?
C. What which is chiefly raw and crude, which besides the first and imperfect Alteration in the Stomach has had no other Concoction.
D. How comes Phlegm to be Salt?
C. By the corruption of sweet Phlegm through the mixture of the serous Humor.
D. How many sorts of Phlegm are bred without the Veins?
C. Four sorts; the Watery, the Snotty, the Glassy, and the Pargetty.
D. What is the Watery?
C. That which is so thin that it distils from the Nostrils, or falls from the Brains upon the lower parts like Water.
D. What is the Mucous?
C. That which by the heat of the Parts is thickened into the substance of Snot [mucus].
D. What is the Vitreous of Glassy;
C. That which is color and substance is like melted Glass, thicker and colder then the Snotty.
D. What the Pargettty?
C. That which at length becomes as thick and hard as Parget; such as is sometimes seen in the Joints, in which, after preceding thinner distillation, and dissolutions of the thinner part of the Matter, at last appears a piece of Phlegm hardened like a Pumice-stone.
Primogenious Humor is associated with Yin, but also with Essence.
Autumn in general is the Cold and dry season which augments Melancholy.
Insensible Transpiration is the fluid lost through the skin and breath, although not perceptible.
Serous Humor is equated with Serum
Vitelline means 'Yellow Bile'. Black Bile is burnt or oxidised Yellow Bile.
The Art Of Physick
OF THE 7 NATURALS
Introduction to the 7 Naturals
OF THE 6 NOT-NATURALS
(Preservation of Health)
Introduction to the 6 Not-Naturals
1. Ambient Air
2. Food and Drink
3. Sleep and Waking
4a. Exercise &
6. Emotions (Passions of the Mind)
OF THE 3 PRETER-NATURALS
3a. Symptoms &