The Art of Physick
Section A. Of the 7 Naturals
3. Of the Parts
D. Thus much for the Elements and Temperaments; now let us come to the Parts. What is a Part?
C. The Word Part, in a large sense, signifies whatever makes up the whole frame of Human Body; for whatever completes and perfects the whole, is called a Part, as Galen testifies. In this large and extended signification Hippocrates uses the Word, when he calls the Humors and Spirits Parts. But by Fernelius a Part is properly described to be a body cohering to the whole, conjoined by Life, common to both, and provided for such a Use or Function: By which Definition Humors and Spirits are excluded out of the number of parts, because they never stay or cohere, but are carried with a swift motion through the Veins and Arteries.
D. What is the Division of Parts?
C. The Division of Parts is manifold; but the chief Division is into such as contain, and such as are contained.
D. Which are the containing parts?
C. The Solid parts which are upheld by themselves.
D. How are they divided?
C. Into Similar and Dissimilar
D. What are Similar Parts?
C. Similar Parts, so called, as being of the same Nature, are such as consist of one equal Substance, every way like to its self, in which as being smallest to the Sense, the Dissolution of the Body consists; for which reason they are sometimes called Simple and Primary; and sometimes sensible Elements, as appearing most simple to the Senses.
D. How are Similar Parts divided?
C. Into Spermatic and Sanguine.
D. What are the Spermatic Parts?
C. Such as consist of Seed.
D. How many are the Similar Spermatic Parts?
C. Nine. Bones, Muscles, Ligaments, Fibers, Membranes, Nerves, Veins, Arteries and Skin.
D. But I say, Nerves, Veins, Arteries and Skin are Dissimilar Parts; for Galen, Hippocrates and Plato Of the Use of the Parts, assert, that the Nerves are Marrowy within, Membrany without; that the body of the Veins and Nerves are interwoven with Membranes, and several Fibers; and that the Skin consists of Nerves, Veins and Arteries; and therefore they ought not to be numbered among the similar Parts.
C. I answer, There are two sorts of Similar Parts; for some are really Similars, as Bones, Muscles, Ligaments, Fibers, Membranes; other only in the Judgement of Sense; and so Nerves, Veins, Arteries and Skin shall be Similar Parts, because upon the first view their substance seems to be of the same kind.
D. Which are the Sanguinary Parts?
C. Which have their Original from the Blood, as Flesh and Fat.
D. Which are the Dissimilar Parts?
C. The Dissimilar Parts are such as are not Composed of parts of the same Nature, but of several differing in Species. They are otherwise called Organic, as being the Instruments of which the Faculties and Functions of the Mind make use.
D. How are the Organic Parts divided?
C. Into Animal, Vital and Natural; and every one of these, into Principal and Assistant.
D. What do you call the Animal, Vital, and Natural Parts.
C. The Instruments of the Animal, Vital and Natural Functions.
D. What do you call the Principal Part?
C. That part which governs the rest.
D. Which are the Assisting Parts?
C. Those which are subservient to the Principal, and derive their Original from it for the most part.
D. Which is the Principal Organ of the Animal Function?
C. The Brain; for it is the common Original of all the Animal Functions, as well sensitive, as moving; the Seat of the Animal Spirit, and the beginning of the Nerves.
D. How many are the Organs assisting the Brain in the exercise of the Animal Function?
C. Twofold; for some conveigh the Animal Faculty to sense and motion, others operate; of which sort are all the proper Organs of every sense, exterior and voluntary motion.
D. Which are the Organs the Conveigh the Faculty of sense and motion?
C. The Sensitive and moving Nerves.
D. Which are the proper Organs of every Sense?
C. The Eyes, of Seeing; the Ears, of Hearing; the Nose of Smelling; the Tongue, of Taste; and the Skin, of feeling.
D. Which are the proper Organs of voluntary motion?
C. The Muscles.
D. Which is the principal Organ of the Vital Functions?
C. The Heart; for it is the fountain of Vital Faculty and Spirit; the Principal Seat of Native Heat, and the Original of the Arteries.
D. Which are the Organs subservient to the Heart?
C. They are twofold; the Organs of Respiration, and of the Pulses.
D. Which are the Organs of Respiration?
C. They are of three sorts; some for Conveighance, others for reception, others for motion.
The Organs that conveigh the Air, the Wind-pipe and rough Artery. The Lungs receive the Air down in, and prepare it for the Heart: the Moving Organs are sixty five Muscles, dilating and contracting the Breast; for the Air is not drawn, nor the Vapors excluded, without the motion of the Breast.
D. Which are the Instruments for the Pulses?
C. The Arteries.
D. Which are the principle Organs of the Natural Functions?
C. The Liver; for it is the Original of the Natural Faculty, and of all the Veins, and the first Instrument of the generation of Blood.
D. How many sorts of Organs are subservient to the Natural Faculty?
C. Two sorts; for some are appropriated for nourishment, others appointed for generation.
D. Which are the assisting Organs of Nourishment?
C. They are of Three Sorts; some for preparation, some for Purgation, and some for distribution of the Nourishment.
D. Which are for preparation of the Nourishment?
C. The Mouth and Stomach prepare the Nourishment, the one by Mastication, the other by Concoction.
D. Which serve for Purgation?
C. They are of two sorts: for it is the Office of some to purge the Chylus; for the Excrements of the Chylus are sent forth from the Belly; but the Bladder of the Gall, the Spleen, the Kidneys and Bladder are the Organs appointed to purge the Blood; for they receive and separate from the Blood those excrementitious Humors begot in the Chylus matter at the time that it turns to Blood.
D. Which serve for the Distribution of the Nourishment?
C. The Veins,
D. Thou hast reckoned up all the Organs serving to Nourishment, now give me an account of the Organs of Generation.
C. The Organs of Generation, some are common both to Male and Females, some proper to each Sex.
D. Which are common to both Sexes?
C. Testicles and Spermatic Vessels, as well preparing, as conveighing the Seed.
D. Which Proper?
C. The Yard to the Male, the Womb to the Female.
The Veins distributing that distribute Nourishment are specifically the Portal Vein, carrying nutrition from the gut to the Liver.
The Art Of Physick
OF THE 7 NATURALS
Introduction to the 7 Naturals
OF THE 6 NOT-NATURALS
(Preservation of Health)
Introduction to the 6 Not-Naturals
1. Ambient Air
2. Food and Drink
3. Sleep and Waking
4a. Exercise &
6. Emotions (Passions of the Mind)
OF THE 3 PRETER-NATURALS
3a. Symptoms &